Revised 11 October 2019
Note: A printed copy of the following information should be taken to every event.
The Safety Policy of Orienteering ACT (OACT), on which the following procedures are based, is binding on all events organised on behalf of OACT or clubs associated with OACT.
These procedures are in three parts:
- Safety considerations to be taken into account in the organisation of an event.
- Procedures to be followed in event of the need for a search.
- Procedures to be followed in the event of a serious injury or other medical condition.
The OACT Safety Policy recognises that, by its very nature, orienteering involves risks to the safety of participants. The most common risks involve injuries (ankle, leg, or cuts and abrasions), stress from dehydration, overheating, hypothermia, or severe disorientation. The emphasis in orienteering must be on primary safety, that is, on ensuring participants minimise risk. However, provision must be made for emergencies and this policy outlines the steps that should be taken at OACT-affiliated events.
A. EVENT ORGANISATION PROCEDURES
Event Safety Coordinator
The controller, course planner and event organiser must consider safety, emergency and search and rescue options in the planning of the event. An Event Safety Coordinator should be appointed by the organising team. This would normally be the event organiser, although an inexperienced organiser may wish to delegate this role to the controller or another experienced organiser. The Event Safety Coordinator has overall responsibility for decisions relating to safety, search and rescue.
The controller, course planner and organiser (and, if additional, Event Safety Coordinator) should meet and address the following:
- Identify and seek to avoid or minimise any hazards specific to the event, map or proposed courses, and display the warning notices at registration and/or the start.
- Identify additional hazards in the case of bad weather/visibility.
- Minimise hazards for Moderate, Easy and Very easy courses, e.g. do not set controls near edge of map.
- Check that adequate water is available on each course, at controls and/or other key locations. The locations where water is provided should be specified in the control descriptions, or on maps or master maps if drinks are not placed at controls.
- Where appropriate, ensure that safety directions and/or a safety bearing is advised at the start and/or printed on English control descriptions lists.
- If pre-marked maps are used, print an emergency contact number on the map. That number should be contactable at the assembly area throughout the event until the last competitor has returned. In areas where there is unreliable mobile coverage, this may be the number of the satellite phone kept at the assembly area. For events in which competitors copy their own courses, the emergency contact number should be written on the master maps.
- Ensure that the officials responsible for the registration, start and event organisation are aware of and able to fulfil safety requirements.
- Ensure that a list of phone numbers of search resources (including the relevant management authority or landowner), hospitals and search and rescue authorities is at hand.
- Ensure that a qualified doctor or currently qualified first aider will be on hand at all events.
- Ensure that a list of qualified first aiders/doctors from among the OACT membership is available to the organiser.
- Ensure that a sufficient number of experienced people, together with an adequate number of maps for all courses, will be on hand for search and rescue, especially near the end of an event. At least six people should remain at the event site until all competitors have finished their courses. These would usually be club members who are helping to pack up and bring in controls. Even without a search situation, control collectors should be asked to watch for stragglers and direct them back if necessary.
For each participant or leader of a group of participants, organisers must obtain sufficient details to ensure that emergency procedures can be implemented. This information should include:
- Full name of each person entering the competition area.
- Full address (at least for non-members)
- Preferred phone number and alternative number (if available)
- Vehicle registration number(s), at least for drivers (or alternative mode of travel, e.g. bike)
- Course entered.
This information is particularly important for participants who travel alone to an event and have nobody else on hand who can confirm their safe return, as well as for families or other groups who travel and participate together. The information may be obtained as follows:
For participants in pre-entry events: The information is obtained through the pre-entry registration procedure and must be available on the event computer or in printed form at the event.
For participants with season passes for the relevant program: The information is obtained when registering for the program or attending their first event in the program, is regularly updated to ensure that it is comprehensive in covering all these participants, and must be available on the event computer or in printed form at the event. Forms for providing more updating this information are available at events.
For other participants with their own SportIdent (SI) stick: The information is obtained when purchasing their SI stick or using it for the first time, or alternatively when they join or renew their membership, and is available on the event computer or in printed form at the event. Forms for providing or updating this information are available at events.
For participants hiring an SI stick: The information is obtained by each participant or group filling in a registration card when entering the event.
For participants at events where SI is not used: The information is obtained by each participant or group filling in a registration card when entering the event.
A standard form disclaimer by OACT of responsibility should be displayed on an appropriate notice attached or adjacent to the course information at all events. This notice should advise that participation in the event is deemed to be acceptance by participants of risks and responsibilities for their own safety. A similar notice will be included in annual OACT membership application and renewal forms, as a condition of membership.
The organising club and/or OACT officials present should ensure that any beginners or other inexperienced orienteers are briefed on safety issues (if relevant in the circumstances) before they start.
Under Orienteering Australia Competition Rules, rule 6.2 permits the refusal of an entry on a course, if the organiser considers that a person is trying to compete on course beyond their capabilities. This may be an important safety provision in the case of inexperienced orienteers wanting to tackle a challenging course in some of the more rugged or remote areas used for OACT League events.
All orienteers should be encourage to routinely carry a whistle, and to know when and how to use it. Event organiser have the discretion to make carrying a whistle mandatory, particularly for events in remote or rugged areas. The organiser may provide whistles for sale.
Beginners and others who may be concerned about the physical or navigational abilities should be encouraged to carry a mobile phone (if practicable) on the condition that it should not be used as a navigational aid except in an emergency.
All competitors must be advised to report to the finish by the advertised course closure time.
For all events, regardless of whether SportIdent is used at the Start and Finish, accurate actual start lists are essential. If SI is used, participants intending to start must register in the event computer and advise which course they are entering. In addition, start times will be recorded in the Start SI unit. The latter will include any starters who have inadvertently forgotten to register before starting (provided that their SI stick has been cleared).
For pre-entry events an accurate ‘Did Not Start’ (DNS) list must be maintained and delivered to the organiser or to the finish/results coordinator as soon as possible after the last start.
For events which are not pre-entry events, the computer registration procedure should be integrated with the Clear/Check procedure to minimise the risk of participants starting without registering.
For Midweek events, starters must record their start times on a list at the Start, and are also listed (without start times) on their registration cards. For Street Orienteering events, there is a mass start and starters’ names are recorded on their registration cards.
For SI-supported events, check the SI computer program regularly after the start has closed for participants who have registered but are not yet recorded as finished. In addition, if there is doubt at the end of the event about any participants not finishing, it is possible to check the Start SI unit against the Finish SI unit and/or Finish download SI unit to confirm that everyone who started a course has returned. This provides a means of checking whether anyone who has forgotten to register but has still started is still on the course. This, however, is a skilled task requiring an experienced computer operator. It is preferable to use a system which guarantees that all starters are registered in the event computer when they enter the event.
If SI is not used at the start and finish, match start stubs (if used) with finish cards or, in the case of Midweek events, from the start/finish sheet. Near the end of the event, maintain an updated list of participants still out.
For pre-entry events, an accurate actual start list is crucial and must be matched with pre-entry list as soon as it is returned from the start to the organiser or to the finish/ results coordinator.
B. SEARCH PROCEDURES
Determine the Need for a Search
The following procedures should be followed in a situation where a participant has not been recorded as finishing in the event computer or manual start/finish system after a thorough check of that information:
- Check the Start SI unit to confirm when the participant actually started and whether the elapsed time appears reasonable for the course attempted.
- Check if they are any family members or friends waiting for the missing person.
- Check if any participants still at the event know the missing person and can confirm whether they have returned from the course.
- Attempt to ascertain the vehicle registration number and phone number(s) of the missing person from the emergency contact master list or registration cards filled in on the day.
- Check registration numbers of vehicles in the parking area to see if one matches the vehicle of the missing competitor (if known). If the registration number is not known, check if the remaining vehicles belong to event helpers or other participants still at the event. Checking registration numbers, however, is not always a reliable method, particularly in public areas, as vehicles that are unaccounted for may belong to a member of the general public, or to a participant who has gone for a walk after the event or has left the vehicle for other reasons. It is possible also that the missing person may have arrived at the event other than by car. Particularly at the Saturday Metro Series, children are often dropped by their parents before the event and collected afterwards.
- Ring the participant’s mobile or home phone number (if known) or, if there is no answer, another family member or emergency contact who may be able to assist.
If the vehicle registration number and/or phone number is not available through the emergency contact list or registration cards, attempt to contact an OACT member who has access to the Eventor membership database, which may contain phone numbers (but not vehicle registration numbers). Contact phone numbers for some of those members are given at the end of this document. It is worth taking all reasonable steps to clarify whether a participant is actually missing on a course before initiating a search.
If the participant has not returned or is not otherwise accounted for within thirty minutes of course closure, consider the following points before commencing a search:
- Participant details – gain as much information as possible
- Fitness level
- Experience and competence
- Any known/perceived medical conditions
- Clothing the participant is wearing (if known)
- Equipment carried (if known), e.g. watch, whistle
- Course and conditions
- Prevailing and likely weather
- Course distance/terrain/hazard features
- Course estimated winning time/compared to actual completion times
- Estimated completion time for participant
- Daylight remaining
If, after considering the factors above, a search is warranted, the decision to begin a search is made by the Event Safety Coordinator.
There are two levels of search. The Event Safety Coordinator may decide to initiate a comprehensive, higher level, search immediately if conditions warrant. However, it would be normal practice to undertake a lower level search first.
Essential Preparations for a Search
- Locate a base station where all searchers will report (usually the assembly area).
- Appoint a search coordinator, who should remain at the base station with a mobile phone (if coverage is available).
- Identify as much information as possible about the participant (see above).
- Narrow the search area by asking if anyone has seen the participant while they were competing.
- Develop maps showing the participant’s course, and likely points of error/hazards.
- Estimate the distance travelled and prepare a perimeter map identifying bordering roadways and rights of way.
- Transcribe those details onto the maps to be carried by searchers.
- Issue torches to searchers if appropriate and available.
- Ensure that due regard is given for the safety of searchers, who are OACT member volunteers.
Lower Level Search
- Place observers and/or vehicles on major roads and trails.
- Assign teams of two or more to walk/jog the missing person’s course. One team should do the course in reverse order, one in the correct order. Additional teams may be sent to particular hazard spots or locations where the participant is likely to have gone astray.
- Brief search party members as follows:
- Protect scent articles – do not touch or relocate possible scent articles, but wait for a search dog handler to collect them in the event that dogs are used in a higher level search.
- Instruct teams to pause frequently, looking ahead, back and side to side while using voice or single whistle blasts.
- Instruct teams on whistle signals to use during search and in event of finding the missing person and requiring further assistance.
- Each team should carry water, and an emergency first aid kit (at least a compression bandage) and preferably a mobile phone for communicating with the base station (if coverage is available).
- If the missing person is found and cannot be moved, one member must stay with the person, and one return to the base station.
- Ten (10) short blasts of a car horn at 1 to 2 minute intervals is used to signal searchers to return to base.
- All searchers should return to the base station by a predetermined time (normally in time to allow any higher level search to commence well before sunset).
Higher Level Search
If a higher level search is warranted, the Event Safety Coordinator should take into consideration the amount of time that the search has taken so far and the amount of daylight remaining when determining when to contact the appropriate authority.
In initiating a higher level search, the Event Safety Coordinator should:
- notify the appropriate authorities that a search is required (e.g. area manager, ACT or NSW Police);
- notify a home contact for the missing person using information from the registration card or participant database if available;
- transfer any relevant information to the authority responsible for coordinating the higher level search;
- support the search as required by the responsible authority; and
- notify a senior OACT officer in the following order of priority (see contact names and phone numbers at the end of this document):
- Executive Director
C. SERIOUS INJURIES AND OTHER MEDICAL CONDITIONS
The following procedures should be followed in a situation where a participant has experienced a serious injury or other medical condition and requires assistance to return to the assembly area and/or requires on-site treatment. The precise response may depend on the nature of the injury or medical condition.
If Urgent Medical Treatment Is Required
- Immediately phone the relevant ambulance service (ACT or NSW) and, if access through locked gates is needed, the relevant management authority or landholder.
- If not already in hand, send a suitably qualified medical, paramedical or first aid person, if available, to the site of the incident to attend to the person until ambulance personnel arrive. If the OACT trailer is at the event, it should contain a field first aid kit in a backpack and a folding stretcher in addition to the standard first aid kit kept with the event equipment.
- Once the urgent actions are in hand, the Event Safety Coordinator should notify a senior OACT officer in the order of priority listed above.
If Medical Treatment Appears to Be Less Urgent
Depending on the nature of the injury or medical condition, it may be appropriate for a suitably qualified person to assess the situation prior to calling an ambulance. If in doubt, an ambulance should be called, but not necessarily with the same degree of urgency.
Some situations may be managed by event officials or other participants, subject to the guidance of a suitably qualified person. If the trailer is at the event, it should contain a stretcher which, in some situations, may be used to transport an injured person if there is a delay in a regular ambulance being available. Access through locked gates should be arranged with the management authority or landholder if this would assist in rescue operations.
The Event Safety Coordinator should notify a senior OACT officer as above.
CONTACT PHONE NUMBERS
Unless more specific phone contact numbers have been compiled for the event, the following contacts may be useful:
President: Phil Walker 6291 0650, 0409 778 213
Executive Director: Geoff Wood 6295 9558, 0412 074 221
Secretary: Stephen Goggs 6282 2686, 0401 994 975
Persons with access to Eventor membership database:
Bill Jones 6278 7084, 0428 255 210
Geoff Wood 6295 9558, 0412 074 221
Bob Mouatt 6231 2463, 0429 398 794
OACT Office: 6162 3422
Emergency (Ambulance or Police): 000 or 112 (alternative for mobiles)
Access Canberra (for any ACT Government agencies, all hours): 13 2281
Canberra Nature Park North: 6207 2113 (working hours only) or through Access Canberra
Canberra Nature Park South: 6207 2087 (working hours only) or through Access Canberra
Namadgi National Park Visitor Centre: 6207 2900
Stromlo Forest Park (Manager): 0417 248 374
ACT Forests: Through Access Canberra
ACT Police: 13 1444
NSW Police: Queanbeyan 6298 0599, Bungendore 6238 1244, Cooma 6452 0099, Monaro – Queanbeyan Local Area Command 6298 0555.
ACT Ambulance: 000 or 112
NSW Ambulance Service: 13 1233
For specific areas including private land, see contact details in the relevant Event Planning and Management Guidelines (if available).
AFTER THE EVENT
Following an event involving a major search or serious injury, a written report from the Event Safety Coordinator is to be submitted to the event controller and to the OACT Office. This report should detail decisions and actions, as well as the nature and extent of the search, rescue or injury.